Syllabus for Malayalam Literature Optional



(Answers must be written in Malayalam)

Section A

1—Early phase of Malayalam Language : 1.1 Various theories : Origin from proto Dravidian, Tamil, Sanskrit. 1.2 Relation between Tamil and Malayalam : Six nayas of A. R. Rajarajavarma. 1.3 Pattu School—Definition, Ramacharitam, later pattu works—Niranam works and Krishnagatha.

2—Linguistic features of : 2.1 Manipravalam—definition. Language of early manipravala works—Champu, Sandesakavya, Chandrotsava, minor works. Later manipravala works—medieval Champu and Attakkatha. 2.2 Folklore—Southern and Northern ballads, Mappila songs. 2.3 Early Malayalam Prose—Bhashakautaliyam, Brahmandapuranam, Attaprakaram, Kramadipika and Nambiantamil.

3—Standardisation of Malayalam : 3.1 Peculiarities of the language of Pana, Kilippattu and Tullal. 3.2 Contributions of indigenous and European missionaries to Malayalam. 3.3 Characteristics of contemporary Malayalam; Malayalam as administrative language. Language of scientific and technical literature—media language.


4—Ancient and Medieval Literature : 4.1 Pattu—Ramacharitam, Niranam Works and Krishnagatha. 4.2 Manipravalam—early and medieval manipravala works including attakkatha and champu. 4.3 Folk Literature. 4.4 Kilippattu, Tullal and Mahakavya.

5—Modern Literature—Poetry : 5.1 Venmani poets and contemporaries. 5.2 The advent of Romanticism—Poetry of Kavitraya i.e., Asan, Ulloor and Vallathol. 5.3 Poetry after Kavitraya. 5.4 Modernism in Malayalam Poetry.

6—Modern Literature—Prose : 6.1 Drama. 6.2 Novel. 6.3 Short story. 6.4 Biography, travelogue, essay and criticism.


(Answers must be written in Malayalam) This paper will require first hand reading of the texts prescribed and is designed to test the candidate’s critical ability.

Section A

Unit 1 1.1 Ramacharitam—Patalam 1. 1.2 Kannassaramayanam—Balakandam first 25 stanzas. 1.3 Unnunilisandesam—Purvabhagam 25 slokas including Prastavana. 1.4 Mahabharatham Kilippattu—Bhishmaparvam.

Unit 2 2.1 Kumaran Asan—Chintavisthayaya Sita. 2.2 Vailoppilli—Kutiyozhikkal. 2.3 G. Sankara Kurup—Perunthachan. 2.4 N. V. Krishna Variar—Tivandiyile pattu.

Unit 3 3.1 O. N. V.—Bhumikkoru Charamagitam. 3.2 Ayyappa Panicker—Kurukshetram. 3.3 Akkittam—Pandatha Messanthi. 3.4 Attur Ravivarma—Megharupan. Section B

Unit 4 4.1 O. Chanthu Menon—Indulekha. 4.2 Thakazhy—Chemmin. 4.3 O. V. Vijayan—Khasakkinte Ithihasam.

Unit 5 5.1 M. T. Vasudevan Nair—Vanaprastham (Collection). 5.2 N. S. Madhavan—Higvitta (Collection). 5.3 C. J. Thomas—1128-il Crime 27.

Unit 6 6.1 Kuttikrishna Marar—Bharataparyatanam. 6.2 M. K. Sanu—Nakshatrangalute Snehabhajanam. 6.3 V. T. Bhatttathirippad—Kannirum Kinavum.

Syllabus for English Literature Optional

The syllabus consists of two papers, designed to test a firsthand and critical reading of texts prescribed from the following periods in English Literature : Paper 1 : 1600-1900 and Paper 2 : 1900–1990.

There will be two compulsory questions in each paper : (a) A short-notes question related to the topics for general study, and (b) A critical analysis of UNSEEN passages both in prose and verse.


(Answers must be written in English)

Texts for detailed study are listed below. Candidates will also be required to show adequate knowledge of the following topics and movements :

The Renaissance; Elizabethan and Jacobean Drama; Metaphysical Poetry; The Epic and the Mock-epic; Neoclassicism; Satire; The Romantic Movement; The Rise of the Novel; The Victorian Age.

Section A

1. William Shakespeare : King Lear and The Tempest.

2. John Donne. The following poems : –Canonization; –Death be not proud; –The Good Morrow; –On his Mistress going to bed; –The Relic;

3. John Milton : Paradise Lost, I, II, IV, IX.

4. Alexander Pope. The Rape of the Lock.

5. William Wordsworth. The following poems : – Ode on Intimations of Immortality. – Tintern Abbey. – Three years she grew. – She dwelt among untrodden ways. – Michael. – Resolution and Independence. – The World is too much with us. – Milton, thou shouldst be living at this hour. – Upon Westminster Bridge.

6. Alfred Tennyson : In Memoriam.

7. Henrik Ibsen : A Doll’s House

Section B

1. Jonathan Swift, Gulliver’s Travels.

2. Jane Austen. Pride and Prejudice.

3. Henry Fielding. Tom Jones.

4. Charles Dickens. Hard Times.

5. George Eliot. The Mill on the Floss.

6. Thomas Hardy. Tess of the d’Urbervilles.

7. Mark Twain. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.


(Answers must be written in English)

Texts for detailed study are listed below. Candidates will also be required to show adequate knowledge of the following topics and movements :

Modernism; Poets of the Thirties; The stream of-consciousness Novel; Absurd Drama; Colonialism and Post-Colonialism; Indian Writing in English; Marxist, Psychoanalytical and Feminist approaches to literature; Post Modernism.

Section A

1. William Butler Yeats. The following poems : – Easter 1916. – The Second Coming. – A Prayer for my daughter. – Sailing to Byzantium. – The Tower. – Among School Children. – Leda and the Swan. – Meru. – Lapis Lazuli. – The Second Coming. – Byzantium.

2. T.S. Eliot. The following poems : – The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock. – Journey of the Magi. – Burnt Norton.

3. W.H. Auden. The following poems : – Partition – Musee des Beaux Arts – In Memory of W.B. Yeats – Lay your sleeping head, my love – The Unknown Citizen – Consider – Mundus Et Infans – The Shield of Achilles – September 1, 1939 – Petition

4. John Osborne : Look Back in Anger.

5. Samuel Beckett. Waiting for Godot.

6. Philip Larkin. The following poems : – Next – Please – Deceptions – Afternoons – Days – Mr. Bleaney

7. A.K. Ramanujan. The following poems : – Looking for a Cousin on a Swing – A River – Of Mothers, among other Things – Love Poem for a Wife 1 – Small-Scale Reflections on a Great House – Obituary

(All these poems are available in the anthology Ten Twentieth Century Indian Poets, edited by R. Parthasarthy, published by Oxford University Press, New Delhi).

Section B

1. Joseph Conrad. Lord Jim.

2. James Joyce. Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.

3. D.H. Lawrence. Sons and Lovers.

4. E.M. Forster. A Passage to India.

5. Virginia Woolf. Mrs. Dalloway.

6. Raja Rao. Kanthapura.

7. V.S. Naipaul. A House for Mr. Biswas

General Studies Syllabus for Main Examination


Candidates will be required to write multiple essays on specific topics. The choice of subjects will be given. They will be expected to keep closely to the subject of the essay to arrange their ideas in orderly fashion, and to write concisely. Credit will be given for effective and exact expression.

PAPER – 2 :
General Studies- I: Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society

  • Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
  • Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.
  • The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.
  • Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.
  • History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redraw of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society.
  • Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.
  • Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.
  • Effects of globalization on Indian society
  • Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.
  • Salient features of world’s physical geography.
  • Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian subcontinent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India)
  • Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location- changes in critical geographical features (including water bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

PAPER – 3 :
General Studies- II: Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations

  • Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.
  • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.
  • Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.
  • Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries
  • Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.
  • Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.
  • Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.
  • Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.
  • Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies
  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
  • Development processes and the development industry- the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders
  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
  • Issues relating to poverty and hunger.
  • Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.
  • Role of civil services in a democracy.
  • India and its neighborhood- relations.
  • Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests
  • Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian Diaspora.
  • Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

PAPER – 4 :
General Studies-III: Technology, Economic Development, Bio diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management

  • Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.
  • Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
  • Government Budgeting.
  • Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers
  • Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.
  • Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.
  • Land reforms in India.
  • Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
  • Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
  • Investment models.
  • Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life
  • Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.
  • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.
  • Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment
  • Disaster and disaster management.
  • Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
  • Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
  • Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention
  • Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism
  • Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate

PAPER – 5 :

General Studies- IV: Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude (250 marks)

This paper will include questions to test the candidates’ attitude and approach to issues relating to integrity, probity in public life and his problem solving approach to various issues and conflicts faced by him in dealing with society. Questions may utilise the case study approach to determine these aspects. The following broad areas will be covered.

  • Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
  • Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.
  • Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service , integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker sections.
  • Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.
  • Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.
  • Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.
  • Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.
  • Case Studies on above issues.

Syllabus For Preliminary Examination

General Studies Paper I

200 marks/ 2 hours

  • Current events of national and international importance
  • History of India and Indian National Movement
  • Indian and World Geography – Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World
  • Indian Polity and Governance – Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc
  • Economic and Social Development – Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector initiatives, etc
  • General issues on Environmental Ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change – that do not require subject specialisation
  • General Science

General Studies Paper II

200 marks/ 2 hours

  • Comprehension
  • Interpersonal skills including communication skills;
  • Logical reasoning and analytical ability
  • Decision-making and problem solving
  • General mental ability Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude, etc.) (Class X level),
  • Data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency etc. – Class X level)

Optional Subjects

Candidates may choose any one optional subject from the list of subjects given by UPSC:

General Scheme of Civil Services Examination

The UPSC IAS Examination consists of two stages

  1. Preliminary examination, also known as Civil Services Aptitude Test
  2. Mains Examination including a written test and an Interview

Preliminary Examination

The preliminary Examination has two papers of objective type(MCQ) and carries a maximum of 400 marks(200 marks each). This is only a screening test for selection to mains examination. The marks scored in the preliminary examination is not counted for final rank by UPSC.

The papers are named as General Studies Paper I and General Studies Paper II. As of now, General Studies Paper II is a qualifying paper with minimum qualifying marks fixed at 33%.

Main Examination

There is a written examination consisting of various papers.

Qualifying Papers

The score obtained in these papers are not counted for ranking. But the candidate needs to get a minimum mark in these papers to be included in the final list.

Paper A – One of the Indian languages included in the eight schedule of the constitution of India. (300 Marks)

Paper B – English (300 Marks)

Papers to be counted for merit.
Paper I Essay 250 Marks
Paper II General Studies I

(Indian Heritage and Culture, History and geography of the World and Society)

250 Marks
Paper III General Studies II

(Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International Relations)

250 Marks
Paper IV General Studies III

(Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity Environment, Security and Disaster Management)

250 Marks
Paper V General Studies IV

(Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude)

250 Marks
Paper VI Optional Subject – Paper I 250 Marks
Paper VII Optional Subject – Paper II 250 Marks


Thus the written test of mains examination is for a total of 1750 which will be followed by a personality test (interview) of 275 marks. The final ranked list will be published based on the total marks obtained by the candidate out of 2025 marks.

Next: Optional Subjects

Syllabus for Preliminary Examination

General Information about Civil Services Examination

Civil Services Examination conducted by Union Public Service Commission commonly known as UPSC IAS Exam is a recruitment test to various posts under UPSC. The selected candidates are admitted to any of the following services as per their rank and choice.

  • (i) Indian Administrative Service.
  • (ii) Indian Foreign Service.
  • (iii) Indian Police Service.
  • (iv) Indian P & T Accounts & Finance Service, Group ‘A’.
  • (v) Indian Audit and Accounts Service, Group ‘A’.
  • (vi) Indian Revenue Service (Customs and Central Excise), Group ‘A’.
  • (vii) Indian Defence Accounts Service, Group ‘A’.
  • (viii) Indian Revenue Service (I.T.), Group ‘A’.
  • (ix) Indian Ordnance Factories Service, Group ‘A’ (Assistant Works Manager, Administration).
  • (x) Indian Postal Service, Group ‘A’.
  • (xi) Indian Civil Accounts Service, Group ‘A’.
  • (xii) Indian Railway Traffic Service, Group ‘A’.
  • (xiii) Indian Railway Accounts Service, Group ‘A’.
  • (xiv) Indian Railway Personnel Service, Group ‘A’.
  • (xv) Post of Assistant Security Commissioner in Railway Protection Force, Group ‘A’
  • (xvi) Indian Defence Estates Service, Group ‘A’.
  • (xvii) Indian Information Service (Junior Grade), Group ‘A’.
  • (xviii) Indian Trade Service, Group ‘A’ (Gr. III).
  • (xix) Indian Corporate Law Service, Group “A”.
  • (xx) Armed Forces Headquarters Civil Service, Group ‘B’ (Section Officer’s Grade).
  • (xxi) Delhi, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Daman & Diu and Dadra & Nagar Haveli Civil Service, Group ‘B’.
  • (xxii) Delhi, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Daman & Diu and Dadra & Nagar Haveli Police Service, Group ‘B’.
  • (xxiii) Pondicherry Civil Service, Group ‘B’.
  • (xxiv) Pondicherry Police Service, Group ‘B’.

The Civil Services Examination consist of two successive stages (i) Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination (Objective type) for the selection of candidates for the Main Examination; and (ii) Civil Services (Main) Examination (Written and Interview) for the selection of candidates for the various Services and posts.

Persons between 21 to 32 years of age with graduation from any stream approved by UGC is eligible to apply for the examination. Every candidate appearing at the examination who is otherwise eligible, shall be permitted six attempts at the examination.

Next: Scheme of Examination

Brachial Plexus

The brachial plexus is a network of nerve fibres that supplies the skin and musculature of the upper limb. It begins in the root of the neck, passes through the axilla, and enters the upper arm.

The anterior rami of cervical spinal nerves C5, C6, C7 and C8 along with the first thoracic spinal nerve T1 forms this plexus.

The Brachial plexus is divided into Roots, Trunks, Divisions, Cords and Branches for easier understanding. This division is of no functional and practical significance. Roots and trunks lie in the neck in relation with the subclavian artery, divisions lie behind the clavicle, and cords and branches lie in the axilla around the axillary artery.

Roots of the Brachial Plexus are the spinal nerve rami from where it originates. As we already saw the roots are C5, C6, C7, C8 and T1. At each vertebral level, a pair of spinal nerves arise on either side through intervertebral foramina and divides into anterior and posterior nerve fibres. The posterior rami innervate the skin and muscles of the body. The anterior rami form the plexus.

At the base of the neck, the roots join together to form the trunks. They are Superior, Middle and Inferior trunks. While C5 and C6 forms the superior trunk and C8 and T1 forms the inferior trunk, the middle trunk is a continuation of C7. These trunks move laterally and cross the posterior triangle of the neck.

In the posterior triangle of the neck, the trunks divide into two branches one of which moves anteriorly and the other moves posteriorly, thus forming anterior and posterior divisions. The three anterior and three posterior nerve fibres thus formed moves to the axilla.

These divisions join together to form cords in the axilla. The cords are named based on its relative position to the axillary artery. Anterior divisions of superior and middle trunks merge together to form lateral cord and all the posterior divisions merge together to form posterior cord. The anterior division of inferior trunk continues as the medial cord.

The cords give out five major branches in and around axilla which are the main innervations of the upper limb. They are as follows.

Musculocutaneous Nerve arising from Roots C5, C6 and C7. Its motor Functions is to Innervate the brachialis, biceps brachii and coracobrachialis muscles. It gives off the lateral cutaneous branch of the forearm, which innervates the lateral half of the anterior forearm, and a small lateral portion of the posterior forearm.

Branches of the Brachial Plexus
Branches from the roots
• Nerve to serratus anterior (C5, C6, C7)
• Dorsal scapular nerve (C5)
• Muscular branches to the 3 scalene muscles
Branches from the trunks
• Suprascapular nerve (C5, C6)
• Subclavius nerve (C5, C6)
Branches from the cords
o Medial cord
• Medial head of median nerve (C8, T1)
• Medial pectoral (C8, T1)
• Ulnar nerve (C8, T1)
• Median cutaneous nerve of forearm (C8, T1)
• Medial cutaneous nerve of arm (T1)
o Lateral cord
• Lateral pectoral (C5, C6, C7)
• Lateral head of median (C5, C6, C7)
• Musculocutaneous (C5, C6, C7)
o Posterior cord
• Radial (C5,C6,C7,C8,T1)
• Axillary (C5, C6)
• Nerve to latissimus dorsi (C6, C7, C8)
• Subscapular (C5, C6)

Axillary Nerve originates from C5 and C6and innervates the teres minor and deltoid muscles. It gives off the superior lateral cutaneous nerve of the arm, which innervates the inferior region of the deltoid (“regimental badge area”). Median Nerve originates from C6 – T1. (Also contains fibres from C5 in some individuals) and innervates most of the flexor muscles in the forearm, the thenar muscles, and the two lateral lumbricals that move the index and middle fingers. It gives off the palmar cutaneous branch, which innervates the lateral part of the palm, and the digital cutaneous branch, which innervates the lateral three and a half fingers on the anterior (palmar) surface of the hand. Radial Nerve arises from C5-C8 and T1 and innervates the triceps brachii and the extensor muscles in the posterior compartment of the forearm. It also innervates the posterior aspect of the arm and forearm and the posterior, lateral aspect of the hand.Ulnar Nerve is formed from C8 and T1. It innervates the muscles of the hand (apart from the thenar muscles and two lateral lumbricals), flexor carpi ulnaris and medial half of flexor digitorum profundus. It senses the anterior and posterior surfaces of the medial one and half fingers and associated palm area.

Clinical Significance:

There are two major types of injuries that can affect the brachial plexus. An upper brachial plexus injury(Erb’s Palsy) affects the superior roots, and a lower brachial plexus injury(Klumpke Palsy) affects the inferior roots.

Erbs Palsy results in abduction at the shoulder, lateral rotation of the arm, supination of the forearm, and flexion at the shoulder. Loss of sensation down the lateral side of the arm, which covers the sensory innervation of the axillary and musculocutaneous nerves.

The affected limb hangs limply, medially rotated by the unopposed action of pectoralis major. The forearm is pronated due to the loss of biceps brachii. This is position is known as ‘waiter’s tip’, and is characteristic of Erb’s palsy.

Nerves originating from the roots C5 and C6 are affected, including Musculocutaneous and Axillary.

In Klumpke Palsy, Ulnar and median nerves originating from T1 are affected. All the small muscles of the hand (the flexors muscles in the forearm are supplied by the ulnar and median nerves, but are innervated by different roots).  Loss of sensation along the medial side of the arm. The metacarpophalangeal joints are hyperextended, and the interphalangeal joints are flexed. This gives the hand a clawed appearance.

Innervation to remember

Terminal Branch Sensory Innervation Muscular Innervation
musculocutaneous nerve Skin of the anterolateral forearm Brachialis, biceps brachii, coracobrachialis
axillary nerve Skin of lateral portion of the shoulder and upper arm Deltoid and teres minor
radial nerve Posterior aspect of the lateral forearm and wrist; posterior arm Triceps brachii, brachioradialis, anconeus, extensor muscles of the posterior arm and forearm
median nerve Skin of lateral 2/3rd of hand and the tips of digits 1-4 Forearm flexors, thenar eminence, lumbricals of the hand 1-2
ulnar nerve Skin of palm and medial side of hand and digits 3-5 Hypothenar eminence, some forearm flexors, thumb adductor, lumbricals 3-4, interosseous muscles

Cranial Nerves

CN I – Olfactory
CN II – Optic
CN III – Oculomotor
CN IV – Trochlear
CN V – Trigeminal
CN VI – Abducens
CN VII – Facial
CN VIII – Auditory
CN IX – Glossopharyngeal
CN X – Vagus
CN XI – Accessory
CN XII – Hypoglossal

Most of the nerves originate from the spinal cord. The remaining nerves which originate directly from the Brain are called Cranial Nerves. 10 of 12 of the cranial nerves originate in the brainstem. Cranial nerves relay information between the brain and parts of the body, primarily to and from regions of the head and neck.

The cranial nerves are considered components of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), although on a structural level the olfactory, optic and terminal nerves are more accurately considered part of the central nervous system (CNS).

All the cranial nerves are paired and are present on both sides.
There are twelve cranial nerves pairs, which are assigned Roman numerals I–XII. Some experts argue that there are 13 cranial nerves including nerve ‘zero’. The numbering of the cranial nerves is based on the rostral-caudal (front to back) position in which they emerge from the brain.
The Cranial Nerve Zero is a very small terminal nerve (nerve N or O) existing in humans but may not be functional. In other animals, it appears to be important to sexual receptivity based on perceptions of pheromones.

Some Important Points to Remember

1. The only cranial nerve which arises on dorsal aspect – Trochlear nerve

2. The cranial nerve with longest intracranial course – Trochlear nerve

3. The cranial nerve with the longest course – Vagus ( Vagabond Nerve / Wandering Nerve )

4. The cranial nerve most commonly involved in raised intracranial tension – Abducens

5. The cranial nerve most commonly involved in basal skull fractures – Facial Nerve

6. Commonest cranial nerve affected in spinal anaesthesia – Abducens

7. Cranial nerves carrying parasympathetic fibres – 3, 7, 9, 10

8. Thinnest cranial nerve – Trochlear Nerve

9. Thickest cranial nerve – Trigeminal Nerve

10. Cranial nerve palsies in which deviation occurs to the healthy side (opposite side ) – VII and X

11. Cranial nerve palsies in which deviation occurs to same side (diseased side ) – V and XII

12. Cranial nerve involved in Bell’s palsy – VII

13. Cranial nerve involved in herpes zoster ophthalmicus – V

14. Cranial nerve involved in Ramsay hunt syndrome – VII

15. TIC Douloureux – Neuralgia of V nerve ( Trigeminal Neuralgia )

16. Neuralgic pain in the tongue, soft palate, pharynx – Neuralgia of glossopharyngeal nerve