(Answers must be written in Malayalam)
1—Early phase of Malayalam Language : 1.1 Various theories : Origin from proto Dravidian, Tamil, Sanskrit. 1.2 Relation between Tamil and Malayalam : Six nayas of A. R. Rajarajavarma. 1.3 Pattu School—Definition, Ramacharitam, later pattu works—Niranam works and Krishnagatha.
2—Linguistic features of : 2.1 Manipravalam—definition. Language of early manipravala works—Champu, Sandesakavya, Chandrotsava, minor works. Later manipravala works—medieval Champu and Attakkatha. 2.2 Folklore—Southern and Northern ballads, Mappila songs. 2.3 Early Malayalam Prose—Bhashakautaliyam, Brahmandapuranam, Attaprakaram, Kramadipika and Nambiantamil.
3—Standardisation of Malayalam : 3.1 Peculiarities of the language of Pana, Kilippattu and Tullal. 3.2 Contributions of indigenous and European missionaries to Malayalam. 3.3 Characteristics of contemporary Malayalam; Malayalam as administrative language. Language of scientific and technical literature—media language.
Section B LITERARY HISTORY
4—Ancient and Medieval Literature : 4.1 Pattu—Ramacharitam, Niranam Works and Krishnagatha. 4.2 Manipravalam—early and medieval manipravala works including attakkatha and champu. 4.3 Folk Literature. 4.4 Kilippattu, Tullal and Mahakavya.
5—Modern Literature—Poetry : 5.1 Venmani poets and contemporaries. 5.2 The advent of Romanticism—Poetry of Kavitraya i.e., Asan, Ulloor and Vallathol. 5.3 Poetry after Kavitraya. 5.4 Modernism in Malayalam Poetry.
6—Modern Literature—Prose : 6.1 Drama. 6.2 Novel. 6.3 Short story. 6.4 Biography, travelogue, essay and criticism.
(Answers must be written in Malayalam) This paper will require first hand reading of the texts prescribed and is designed to test the candidate’s critical ability.
Unit 1 1.1 Ramacharitam—Patalam 1. 1.2 Kannassaramayanam—Balakandam first 25 stanzas. 1.3 Unnunilisandesam—Purvabhagam 25 slokas including Prastavana. 1.4 Mahabharatham Kilippattu—Bhishmaparvam.
Unit 2 2.1 Kumaran Asan—Chintavisthayaya Sita. 2.2 Vailoppilli—Kutiyozhikkal. 2.3 G. Sankara Kurup—Perunthachan. 2.4 N. V. Krishna Variar—Tivandiyile pattu.
Unit 3 3.1 O. N. V.—Bhumikkoru Charamagitam. 3.2 Ayyappa Panicker—Kurukshetram. 3.3 Akkittam—Pandatha Messanthi. 3.4 Attur Ravivarma—Megharupan. Section B
Unit 4 4.1 O. Chanthu Menon—Indulekha. 4.2 Thakazhy—Chemmin. 4.3 O. V. Vijayan—Khasakkinte Ithihasam.
Unit 5 5.1 M. T. Vasudevan Nair—Vanaprastham (Collection). 5.2 N. S. Madhavan—Higvitta (Collection). 5.3 C. J. Thomas—1128-il Crime 27.
Unit 6 6.1 Kuttikrishna Marar—Bharataparyatanam. 6.2 M. K. Sanu—Nakshatrangalute Snehabhajanam. 6.3 V. T. Bhatttathirippad—Kannirum Kinavum.