Syllabus for Anthropology Optional

ANTHROPOLOGY

PAPER-I

1.1 Meaning, Scope and development of Anthropology.

1.2 Relationships with other disciplines : Social Sciences, behavioural Sciences, Life Sciences, Medical Sciences, Earth Sciences and Humanities.

1.3 Main branches of Anthropology, their scope and relevance :

(a) Social-cultural Anthropology.

(b) Biological Anthropology.

(c) Archaeological Anthropology.

(d) Linguistic Anthropology.

1.4 Human Evolution and emergence of Man :

(a) Biological and Cultural factors in human evolution.

(b) Theories of Organic Evolution (Pre-Darwinian, Darwinian and Post-Darwinian).

(c) Synthetic theory of evolution; Brief outline of terms and concepts of evolutionary biology (Doll’s rule, Cope’s rule, Gause’s rule, parallelism, convergence, adaptive radiation, and mosaic evolution).

1.5 Characteristics of Primates; Evolutionary Trend and Primate Taxonomy; Primate Adaptations; (Arboreal and Terrestrial) Primate Taxonomy; Primate Behaviour; Tertiary and Quaternary fossil primates; Living Major Primates; Comparative Anatomy of Man and Apes; Skeletal changes due to erect posture and its implications.

1.6 Phylogenetic status, characteristics and geographical distribution of the following :

(a) Plio-preleistocene hominids in South and East Africa—Australopithecines.

(b) Homo erectus : Africa (Paranthropus), Europe (Homo erectus (heidelbergensis), Asia (Homo erectus javanicus, Homo erectus pekinensis.

(c) Neanderthal man—La-chapelle-aux-saints (Classical type), Mt. Carmel (Progressive type).

(d) Rhodesian man.

(e) Homo sapiens—Cromagnon, Grimaldi and Chancelede.

1.7 The biological basis of Life : The Cell, DNA structure and replication, Protein Synthesis, Gene, Mutation, Chromosomes, and Cell Division.

1.8 (a) Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology. Chronology : Relative and Absolute Dating methods.

(b) Cultural Evolution—Broad Outlines of Prehistoric cultures : (i) Paleolithic (ii) Mesolithic (iii) Neolithic (iv) Chalcolithic (v) Copper-Bronze Age (vi) Iron Age

2.1 The Nature of Culture : The concept and Characteristics of culture and civilization; Ethnocentrism vis-a-vis cultural Relativism.

2.2 The Nature of Society : Concept of Society; Society and Culture; Social Institution; Social groups; and Social stratification.

2.3 Marriage : Definition and universality; Laws of marriage (endogamy, exogamy, hypergamy, hypogamy, incest taboo); Type of marriage (monogamy, polygamy, polyandry, group marriage). Functions of marriage; Marriage regulations (preferential, prescriptive and proscriptive); Marriage payments (bride wealth and dowry).

2.4 Family : Definition and universality; Family, household and domestic groups; functions of family; Types of family (from the perspectives of structure, blood relation, marriage, residence and succession); Impact of urbanization, industrialization and feminist movements on family.

2.5 Kinship : Consanguinity and Affinity; Principles and types of descent (Unilineal, Double, Bilateral Ambilineal); Forms of descent groups (lineage, clan, phratry, moiety and kindred); Kinship terminology (descriptive and classificatory); Descent, Filiation and Complimentary Filiation;Decent and Alliance.

3. Economic Organization : Meaning, scope and relevance of economic anthropology; Formalist and Substantivist debate; Principles governing production, distribution and exchange (reciprocity, redistribution and market), in communities, subsisting on hunting and gathering, fishing, swiddening, pastoralism, horticulture, and agriculture; globalization and indigenous economic systems.

4. Political Organization and Social Control : Band, tribe, chiefdom, kingdom and state; concepts of power, authority and legitimacy; social control, law and justice in simple Societies.

5. Religion : Anthropological approaches to the study of religion (evolutionary, psychological and functional); monotheism and polytheism; sacred and profane; myths and rituals; forms of religion in tribal and peasant Societies (animism, animatism, fetishism, naturism and totemism); religion, magic and science distinguished; magico-religious functionaries (priest, shaman, medicine man, sorcerer and witch).

6. Anthropological theories :

(a) Classical evolutionism (Tylor, Morgan and Frazer)

(b) Historical particularism (Boas) Diffusionism (British, German and American)

(c) Functionalism (Malinowski); Structural— Functionlism (Radcliffe-Brown)

(d) Structuralism (L’evi-Strauss and E. Leach)

(e) Culture and personality (Benedict, Mead, Linton, Kardiner and Cora-du Bois)

(f) Neo—evolutionism (Childe, White, Steward, Sahlins and Service)

(g) Cultural materialism (Harris)

(h) Symbolic and interpretive theories (Turner, Schneider and Geertz)

(i) Cognitive theories (Tyler, Conklin)

(j) Post-modernism in anthropology.

7. Culture, Language and Communication : Nature, origin and characteristics of language; verbal and non-verbal communication; social contex of language use.

8. Research methods in Anthropology :

(a) Fieldwork tradition in anthropology

(b) Distinction between technique, method and methodology

(c) Tools of data collection : observation, interview, schedules, questionnaire, case study, genealogy, life-history, oral history, secondary sources of information, participatory methods.

(d) Analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.

9.1 Human Genetics : Methods and Application : Methods for study of genetic principles in man-family study (pedigree analysis, twin study, foster child, co-twin method, cytogenetic method, chromosomal and karyo-type analysis), biochemical methods, immunological methods, D.N.A. technology and recombinant technologies.

9.2 Mendelian genetics in man-family study, single factor, multifactor, lethal, sub-lethal and polygenic inheritance in man.

9.3 Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection, Mendelian population, Hardy-Weinberg law; causes and changes which bring down frequency-mutation, isolation, migration, selection, inbreeding and genetic drift. Consanguineous and non-consanguineous mating, genetic load, genetic effect of consanguineous and cousin marriages.

9.4 Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man, methodology.

(a) Numerical and structural aberrations (disorders).

(b) Sex chromosomal aberration- Klinefelter (XXY), Turner (XO), Super female (XXX), intersex and other syndromic disorders.

(c) Autosomal aberrations- Down syndrome, Patau, Edward and Cri-du-chat syndromes.

(d) Genetic imprints in human disease, genetic screening, genetic counseling, human DNA profiling, gene mapping and genome study.

9.5 Race and racism, biological basis of morphological variation of non-metric and characters. Racial criteria, racial traits in relation to heredity and environment; biological basis of racial classification, racial differentiation and race crossing in man.

9.6 Age, sex and population variation as genetic marker : ABO, Rh blood groups, HLA Hp, transferring, Gm, blood enzymes. Physiological characteristics-Hb level, body fat, pulse rate, respiratory functions and sensory perceptions in different cultural and socioecomomic groups.

9.7 Concepts and methods of Ecological Anthropology : Bio-cultural Adaptations—Genetic and Non-genetic factors. Man’s physiological responses to environmental stresses: hot desert, cold, high altitude climate.

9.8 Epidemiological Anthropology : Health and disease. Infectious and non-infectious diseases, Nutritional deficiency related diseases.

10. Concept of human growth and Development : Stages of growth—pre-natal, natal, infant, childhood, adolescence, maturity, senescence. —Factors affecting growth and development genetic, environmental, biochemical, nutritional, cultural and socio-economic. —Ageing and senescence. Theories and observations —Biological and chronological longevity. Human physique and somatotypes. Methodologies for growth studies.

11.1 Relevance of menarche, menopause and other bioevents to fertility. Fertility patterns and differentials.

11.2 Demographic theories-biological, social and cultural.

11.3 Biological and socio-ecological factors influencing fecundity, fertility, natality and mortality.

12. Applications of Anthropology : Anthropology of sports, Nutritional anthropology, Anthroplogy in designing of defence and other equipments, Forensic Anthroplogy, Methods and principles of personal identification and reconstruction, Applied human genetics—Paternity diagnosis, genetic counselling and eugenics, DNA technology in diseases and medicine, serogenetics and cytogenetics in reproductive biology.

PAPER-II

1.1 Evolution of the Indian Culture and Civilization— Prehistoric (Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic and Neolithic-Chalcolithic), Protohistoric (Indus Civilization). Pre-Harappan, Harappan and postHarappan cultures. Contributions of the tribal cultures to Indian civilization.

1.2 Palaeo—Anthropological evidences from India with special reference to Siwaliks and Narmada basin (Ramapithecus, Sivapithecus and Narmada Man).

1.3. Ethno-archaeology in India: The concept of ethnoarchaeology; Survivals and Parallels among the hunting, foraging, fishing, pastoral and peasant communities including arts and crafts producing communities.

2. Demographic profile of India—Ethnic and linguistic elements in the Indian population and their distribution. Indian population—factors influencing its structure and growth.

3.1 The structure and nature of traditional Indian social system—Varnashram, Purushartha, Karma, Rina and Rebirth.

3.2 Caste system in India— Structure and characteristics Varna and caste, Theories of origin of caste system, Dominant caste, Caste mobility, Future of caste system, Jajmani system. Tribe-case continuum.

3.3 Sacred Complex and Nature-Man-Spirit Complex.

3.4. Impact of Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity of Indian society.

4. Emergence, growth and development in India— Contributions of the 18th, 19th and early 20th Century scholar-administrators. Contributions of Indian anthropologists to tribal and caste studies.

5.1 Indian Village—Significane of village study in India; Indian village as a social system; Traditional and changing patterns of settlement and inter-caste relations; Agrarian relations in Indian villages; Impact of globalization on Indian villages.

5.2 Linguistic and religious minorities and their social, political and economic status.

5.3 Indigenous and exogenous processes of sociocultural change in Indian society: Sanskritization, Westernization, Modernization; Inter-play of little and great traditions; Panchayati Raj and social change; Media and Social change.

6.1 Tribal situation in India—Bio-genetic variability, linguistic and socio-economic characteristics of the tribal populations and their distribution.

6.2 Problems of the tribal Communities—Land alienation, poverty, indebtedness, low literacy, poor educational facilities, unemployment, underemployment, health and nutrition.

6.3 Developmental projects and their impact on tribal displacement and problems of rehabilitation. Development of forest policy and tribals. Impact of urbanisation and industrialization on tribal populations.

7.1 Problems of exploitation and deprivation of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes. Constitutional safeguards for Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes.

7.2 Social change and contemporary tribal societies : Impact of modern democratic institutions, development programmes and welfare measures on tribals and weaker sections.

7.3 The concept of ethnicity; Ethnic conflicts and political developments; Unrest among tribal communities; Regionalism and demand for autonomy; Pseudo-tribalism. Social change among the tribes during colonial and post-Independent India.

8.1 Impact of Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam and other religions on tribal societies.

8.2 Tribe and nation state—a comparative study of tribal communities in India and other countries.

9.1 History of administration of tribal areas, tribal policies, plans, programmes of tribal development and their implementation. The concept of PTGs (Primitive Tribal Groups), their distribution, special programmes for their development. Role of N.G.O.s in tribal development.

9.2 Role of anthropology in tribal and rural development.

9.3 Contributions of anthropology to the understanding of regionalism, communalism and ethnic and political movements

Also Read:

List of Books for Anthropology Optional

Syllabus of Political Science Optional

POLITICAL SCIENCE AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

PAPER- I

Political Theory and Indian Politics :

1. Political Theory: meaning and approaches.

2. Theories of state : Liberal, Neo-liberal, Marxist, Pluiralist, post-colonial and Feminist.

3. Justice : Conceptions of justice with special reference to Rawl’s theory of justice and its communitarian critiques.

4. Equality : Social, political and economic; relationship between equality and freedom; Affirmative action.

5. Rights : Meaning and theories; different kinds of rights; Concept of Human Rights.

6. Democracy : Classical and contemporary theories; different models of democracy—representative, participatory and deliberative.

7. Concept of power : hegemony, ideology and legitimacy.

8. Political Ideologies : Liberalism, Socialism, Marxism, Fascism, Gandhism and Feminism.

9. Indian Political Thought: Dharamshastra, Arthashastra and Buddhist Traditions; Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Sri Aurobindo, M. K. Gandhi, B. R. Ambedkar, M. N. Roy.

10. Western Political Thought : Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, John S. Mill, Marx, Gramsci, Hannah Arendt.

Indian Government and Politics

1. Indian Nationalism : (a) Political Strategies of India’s Freedom Struggle : Constitutionalism to mass Satyagraha, Noncooperation, Civil Disobedience; Militant and Revolutionary Movements, Peasant and Workers Movements. (b) Perspectives on Indian National Movement; Liberal, Socialist and Marxist; Radical Humanist and Dalit.

2. Making of the Indian Constitution : Legacies of the British rule; different social and political perspectives.

3. Salient Features of the Indian Constitution : The Preamble, Fundamental Rights and Duties, Directive Principles; Parliamentary System and Amendment Procedures; Judicial Review and Basic Structure doctrine.

4. (a) Principal Organs of the Union Government : Envisaged role and actual working of the Executive, Legislature and Supreme Court. (b) Principal Organs of the State Government : Envisaged role and actual working of the Executive, Legislature and High Courts.

5. Grassroots Democracy : Panchayati Raj and Municipal Government; Significance of 73rd and 74th Amendments; Grassroot movements.

6. Statutory Institutions/Commissions : Election Commission, Comptroller and Auditor General, Finance Commission, Union Public Service Commission, National Commission for Scheduled Castes, National Commission for Scheduled Tribes, National Commission for Women; National Human Rights Commission, National Commission for Minorities, National Backward Classes Commission.

7. Federalism : Constitutional provisions; changing nature of centre-state relations; integrationist tendencies and regional aspirations; inter-state disputes.

8. Planning and Economic development : Nehruvian and Gandhian perspectives; Role of planning and public sector; Green Revolution, land reforms and agrarian relations; liberalization and economic reforms.

9. Caste, Religion and Ethnicity in Indian Politics.

10. Party System : National and regional political parties, ideological and social bases of parties; Patterns of coalition politics; Pressure groups, trends in electoral behaviour; changing socio-economic profile of Legislators.

11. Social Movement : Civil liberties and human rights movements; women’s movements; environmentalist movements.

PAPER-II

Comparative Politics and International Relations Comparative Political Analysis and International Politics :

1. Comparative Politics : Nature and major approaches; Political economy and political sociology perspectives; Limitations of the comparative method.

2. State in Comparative Perspective : Characteristics and changing nature of the State in capitalist and socialist economies, and advanced industrial and developing societies.

3. Politics of Representation and Participation : Political parties, pressure groups and social movements in advanced industrial and developing societies.

4. Globalisation : Responses from developed and developing societies.

5. Approaches to the Study of International Relations : Idealist, Realist, Marxist, Functionalist and Systems theory.

6. Key Concepts in International Relations : National interest, security and power; Balance of power and deterrence; Transational actors and collective security; World capitalist economy and globalisation.

7. Changing International Political Order : (a) Rise of super powers; Strategic and ideological Bipolarity, arms race and cold war; Nuclear threat; (b) Non-aligned Movement : Aims and achievements. (c) Collapse of the Soviet Union; Unipolarity and American hegemony; Relevance of non-alignment in the contemporary world.

8. Evolution of the International Economic System : From Brettonwoods to WTO; Socialist economies and the CMEA (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance); Third World demand for new international economic order; Globalisation of the world economy.

9. United Nations : Envisaged role and actual record; Specialized UN agencies—aims and functioning; need for UN reforms.

10. Regionalisation of World Politics : EU, ASEAN, APEC, AARC, NAFTA.

11. Contemporary Global Concerns : Democracy, human rights, environment, gender justice terrorism, nuclear proliferation.

India and the World

1. Indian Foreign Policy : Determinants of foreign policy; the institutions of policy-making; Continuity and change.

2. India’s Contribution to the Non-Alignment Movement Different phases; Current role.

3. India and South Asia : (a) Regional Co-operation : SAARC-past performance and future prospects. (b) South Asia as a Free Trade Area. (c) India’s “Look East” policy. (d) Impediments to regional co-operation : River water disputes; illegal cross border migration; Ethnic conflicts and insurgencies; Border disputes.

4. India and the Global South : Relations with Africa and Latin America; Leadership role in the demand for NIEO and WTO negotiations.

5. India and the Global Centres of Power : USA, EU, Japan, China and Russia.

6. India and the UN System: Role in UN Peace-keeping; Demand for Permanent Seat in the Security Council.

7. India and the Nuclear Question : Changing perceptions and policy.

8. Recent developments in Indian Foreign Policy : India’s position on the recent crises in Afghanistan, Iraq and West Asia, growing relations with US and Isreal; Vision of a new world order.

Also Read:

List of Books for Political Science Optional

Syllabus for Malayalam Literature Optional

MALAYALAM

PAPER-I

(Answers must be written in Malayalam)

Section A

1—Early phase of Malayalam Language : 1.1 Various theories : Origin from proto Dravidian, Tamil, Sanskrit. 1.2 Relation between Tamil and Malayalam : Six nayas of A. R. Rajarajavarma. 1.3 Pattu School—Definition, Ramacharitam, later pattu works—Niranam works and Krishnagatha.

2—Linguistic features of : 2.1 Manipravalam—definition. Language of early manipravala works—Champu, Sandesakavya, Chandrotsava, minor works. Later manipravala works—medieval Champu and Attakkatha. 2.2 Folklore—Southern and Northern ballads, Mappila songs. 2.3 Early Malayalam Prose—Bhashakautaliyam, Brahmandapuranam, Attaprakaram, Kramadipika and Nambiantamil.

3—Standardisation of Malayalam : 3.1 Peculiarities of the language of Pana, Kilippattu and Tullal. 3.2 Contributions of indigenous and European missionaries to Malayalam. 3.3 Characteristics of contemporary Malayalam; Malayalam as administrative language. Language of scientific and technical literature—media language.

Section B LITERARY HISTORY

4—Ancient and Medieval Literature : 4.1 Pattu—Ramacharitam, Niranam Works and Krishnagatha. 4.2 Manipravalam—early and medieval manipravala works including attakkatha and champu. 4.3 Folk Literature. 4.4 Kilippattu, Tullal and Mahakavya.

5—Modern Literature—Poetry : 5.1 Venmani poets and contemporaries. 5.2 The advent of Romanticism—Poetry of Kavitraya i.e., Asan, Ulloor and Vallathol. 5.3 Poetry after Kavitraya. 5.4 Modernism in Malayalam Poetry.

6—Modern Literature—Prose : 6.1 Drama. 6.2 Novel. 6.3 Short story. 6.4 Biography, travelogue, essay and criticism.

PAPER-II

(Answers must be written in Malayalam) This paper will require first hand reading of the texts prescribed and is designed to test the candidate’s critical ability.

Section A

Unit 1 1.1 Ramacharitam—Patalam 1. 1.2 Kannassaramayanam—Balakandam first 25 stanzas. 1.3 Unnunilisandesam—Purvabhagam 25 slokas including Prastavana. 1.4 Mahabharatham Kilippattu—Bhishmaparvam.

Unit 2 2.1 Kumaran Asan—Chintavisthayaya Sita. 2.2 Vailoppilli—Kutiyozhikkal. 2.3 G. Sankara Kurup—Perunthachan. 2.4 N. V. Krishna Variar—Tivandiyile pattu.

Unit 3 3.1 O. N. V.—Bhumikkoru Charamagitam. 3.2 Ayyappa Panicker—Kurukshetram. 3.3 Akkittam—Pandatha Messanthi. 3.4 Attur Ravivarma—Megharupan. Section B

Unit 4 4.1 O. Chanthu Menon—Indulekha. 4.2 Thakazhy—Chemmin. 4.3 O. V. Vijayan—Khasakkinte Ithihasam.

Unit 5 5.1 M. T. Vasudevan Nair—Vanaprastham (Collection). 5.2 N. S. Madhavan—Higvitta (Collection). 5.3 C. J. Thomas—1128-il Crime 27.

Unit 6 6.1 Kuttikrishna Marar—Bharataparyatanam. 6.2 M. K. Sanu—Nakshatrangalute Snehabhajanam. 6.3 V. T. Bhatttathirippad—Kannirum Kinavum.

Syllabus for English Literature Optional

The syllabus consists of two papers, designed to test a firsthand and critical reading of texts prescribed from the following periods in English Literature : Paper 1 : 1600-1900 and Paper 2 : 1900–1990.

There will be two compulsory questions in each paper : (a) A short-notes question related to the topics for general study, and (b) A critical analysis of UNSEEN passages both in prose and verse.

PAPER I

(Answers must be written in English)

Texts for detailed study are listed below. Candidates will also be required to show adequate knowledge of the following topics and movements :

The Renaissance; Elizabethan and Jacobean Drama; Metaphysical Poetry; The Epic and the Mock-epic; Neoclassicism; Satire; The Romantic Movement; The Rise of the Novel; The Victorian Age.

Section A

1. William Shakespeare : King Lear and The Tempest.

2. John Donne. The following poems : –Canonization; –Death be not proud; –The Good Morrow; –On his Mistress going to bed; –The Relic;

3. John Milton : Paradise Lost, I, II, IV, IX.

4. Alexander Pope. The Rape of the Lock.

5. William Wordsworth. The following poems : – Ode on Intimations of Immortality. – Tintern Abbey. – Three years she grew. – She dwelt among untrodden ways. – Michael. – Resolution and Independence. – The World is too much with us. – Milton, thou shouldst be living at this hour. – Upon Westminster Bridge.

6. Alfred Tennyson : In Memoriam.

7. Henrik Ibsen : A Doll’s House

Section B

1. Jonathan Swift, Gulliver’s Travels.

2. Jane Austen. Pride and Prejudice.

3. Henry Fielding. Tom Jones.

4. Charles Dickens. Hard Times.

5. George Eliot. The Mill on the Floss.

6. Thomas Hardy. Tess of the d’Urbervilles.

7. Mark Twain. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.

PAPER II

(Answers must be written in English)

Texts for detailed study are listed below. Candidates will also be required to show adequate knowledge of the following topics and movements :

Modernism; Poets of the Thirties; The stream of-consciousness Novel; Absurd Drama; Colonialism and Post-Colonialism; Indian Writing in English; Marxist, Psychoanalytical and Feminist approaches to literature; Post Modernism.

Section A

1. William Butler Yeats. The following poems : – Easter 1916. – The Second Coming. – A Prayer for my daughter. – Sailing to Byzantium. – The Tower. – Among School Children. – Leda and the Swan. – Meru. – Lapis Lazuli. – The Second Coming. – Byzantium.

2. T.S. Eliot. The following poems : – The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock. – Journey of the Magi. – Burnt Norton.

3. W.H. Auden. The following poems : – Partition – Musee des Beaux Arts – In Memory of W.B. Yeats – Lay your sleeping head, my love – The Unknown Citizen – Consider – Mundus Et Infans – The Shield of Achilles – September 1, 1939 – Petition

4. John Osborne : Look Back in Anger.

5. Samuel Beckett. Waiting for Godot.

6. Philip Larkin. The following poems : – Next – Please – Deceptions – Afternoons – Days – Mr. Bleaney

7. A.K. Ramanujan. The following poems : – Looking for a Cousin on a Swing – A River – Of Mothers, among other Things – Love Poem for a Wife 1 – Small-Scale Reflections on a Great House – Obituary

(All these poems are available in the anthology Ten Twentieth Century Indian Poets, edited by R. Parthasarthy, published by Oxford University Press, New Delhi).

Section B

1. Joseph Conrad. Lord Jim.

2. James Joyce. Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.

3. D.H. Lawrence. Sons and Lovers.

4. E.M. Forster. A Passage to India.

5. Virginia Woolf. Mrs. Dalloway.

6. Raja Rao. Kanthapura.

7. V.S. Naipaul. A House for Mr. Biswas

General Studies Syllabus for Main Examination

PAPER -1:
Essay

Candidates will be required to write multiple essays on specific topics. The choice of subjects will be given. They will be expected to keep closely to the subject of the essay to arrange their ideas in orderly fashion, and to write concisely. Credit will be given for effective and exact expression.

PAPER – 2 :
General Studies- I: Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society

  • Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
  • Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.
  • The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.
  • Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.
  • History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redraw of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society.
  • Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.
  • Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.
  • Effects of globalization on Indian society
  • Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.
  • Salient features of world’s physical geography.
  • Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian subcontinent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India)
  • Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location- changes in critical geographical features (including water bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

PAPER – 3 :
General Studies- II: Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations

  • Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.
  • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.
  • Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.
  • Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries
  • Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.
  • Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.
  • Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.
  • Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.
  • Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies
  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
  • Development processes and the development industry- the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders
  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
  • Issues relating to poverty and hunger.
  • Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.
  • Role of civil services in a democracy.
  • India and its neighborhood- relations.
  • Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests
  • Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian Diaspora.
  • Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

PAPER – 4 :
General Studies-III: Technology, Economic Development, Bio diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management

  • Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.
  • Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
  • Government Budgeting.
  • Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers
  • Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.
  • Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.
  • Land reforms in India.
  • Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
  • Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
  • Investment models.
  • Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life
  • Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.
  • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.
  • Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment
  • Disaster and disaster management.
  • Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
  • Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
  • Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention
  • Security challenges and their management in border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism
  • Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate

PAPER – 5 :

General Studies- IV: Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude (250 marks)

This paper will include questions to test the candidates’ attitude and approach to issues relating to integrity, probity in public life and his problem solving approach to various issues and conflicts faced by him in dealing with society. Questions may utilise the case study approach to determine these aspects. The following broad areas will be covered.

  • Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
  • Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.
  • Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service , integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker sections.
  • Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.
  • Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.
  • Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.
  • Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.
  • Case Studies on above issues.

Syllabus For Preliminary Examination

General Studies Paper I

200 marks/ 2 hours

  • Current events of national and international importance
  • History of India and Indian National Movement
  • Indian and World Geography – Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World
  • Indian Polity and Governance – Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc
  • Economic and Social Development – Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector initiatives, etc
  • General issues on Environmental Ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change – that do not require subject specialisation
  • General Science

General Studies Paper II

200 marks/ 2 hours

  • Comprehension
  • Interpersonal skills including communication skills;
  • Logical reasoning and analytical ability
  • Decision-making and problem solving
  • General mental ability Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude, etc.) (Class X level),
  • Data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency etc. – Class X level)

Optional Subjects

Candidates may choose any one optional subject from the list of subjects given by UPSC:

General Scheme of Civil Services Examination

The UPSC IAS Examination consists of two stages

  1. Preliminary examination, also known as Civil Services Aptitude Test
  2. Mains Examination including a written test and an Interview

Preliminary Examination

The preliminary Examination has two papers of objective type(MCQ) and carries a maximum of 400 marks(200 marks each). This is only a screening test for selection to mains examination. The marks scored in the preliminary examination is not counted for final rank by UPSC.

The papers are named as General Studies Paper I and General Studies Paper II. As of now, General Studies Paper II is a qualifying paper with minimum qualifying marks fixed at 33%.

Main Examination

There is a written examination consisting of various papers.

Qualifying Papers

The score obtained in these papers are not counted for ranking. But the candidate needs to get a minimum mark in these papers to be included in the final list.

Paper A – One of the Indian languages included in the eight schedule of the constitution of India. (300 Marks)

Paper B – English (300 Marks)

Papers to be counted for merit.
Paper I Essay 250 Marks
Paper II General Studies I

(Indian Heritage and Culture, History and geography of the World and Society)

250 Marks
Paper III General Studies II

(Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International Relations)

250 Marks
Paper IV General Studies III

(Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity Environment, Security and Disaster Management)

250 Marks
Paper V General Studies IV

(Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude)

250 Marks
Paper VI Optional Subject – Paper I 250 Marks
Paper VII Optional Subject – Paper II 250 Marks

 

Thus the written test of mains examination is for a total of 1750 which will be followed by a personality test (interview) of 275 marks. The final ranked list will be published based on the total marks obtained by the candidate out of 2025 marks.

Next: Optional Subjects

Syllabus for Preliminary Examination

General Information about Civil Services Examination

Civil Services Examination conducted by Union Public Service Commission commonly known as UPSC IAS Exam is a recruitment test to various posts under UPSC. The selected candidates are admitted to any of the following services as per their rank and choice.

  • (i) Indian Administrative Service.
  • (ii) Indian Foreign Service.
  • (iii) Indian Police Service.
  • (iv) Indian P & T Accounts & Finance Service, Group ‘A’.
  • (v) Indian Audit and Accounts Service, Group ‘A’.
  • (vi) Indian Revenue Service (Customs and Central Excise), Group ‘A’.
  • (vii) Indian Defence Accounts Service, Group ‘A’.
  • (viii) Indian Revenue Service (I.T.), Group ‘A’.
  • (ix) Indian Ordnance Factories Service, Group ‘A’ (Assistant Works Manager, Administration).
  • (x) Indian Postal Service, Group ‘A’.
  • (xi) Indian Civil Accounts Service, Group ‘A’.
  • (xii) Indian Railway Traffic Service, Group ‘A’.
  • (xiii) Indian Railway Accounts Service, Group ‘A’.
  • (xiv) Indian Railway Personnel Service, Group ‘A’.
  • (xv) Post of Assistant Security Commissioner in Railway Protection Force, Group ‘A’
  • (xvi) Indian Defence Estates Service, Group ‘A’.
  • (xvii) Indian Information Service (Junior Grade), Group ‘A’.
  • (xviii) Indian Trade Service, Group ‘A’ (Gr. III).
  • (xix) Indian Corporate Law Service, Group “A”.
  • (xx) Armed Forces Headquarters Civil Service, Group ‘B’ (Section Officer’s Grade).
  • (xxi) Delhi, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Daman & Diu and Dadra & Nagar Haveli Civil Service, Group ‘B’.
  • (xxii) Delhi, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Daman & Diu and Dadra & Nagar Haveli Police Service, Group ‘B’.
  • (xxiii) Pondicherry Civil Service, Group ‘B’.
  • (xxiv) Pondicherry Police Service, Group ‘B’.

The Civil Services Examination consist of two successive stages (i) Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination (Objective type) for the selection of candidates for the Main Examination; and (ii) Civil Services (Main) Examination (Written and Interview) for the selection of candidates for the various Services and posts.

Persons between 21 to 32 years of age with graduation from any stream approved by UGC is eligible to apply for the examination. Every candidate appearing at the examination who is otherwise eligible, shall be permitted six attempts at the examination.

Next: Scheme of Examination